Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)

Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
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Country Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) Rank Year

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Data published by
World Bank – World Development Indicators

Data publisher's source
UNESCO Institute for Statistics (


Last update by data publisher

Variable time span
1996 : 2020